Calling When the Date Went Well
If you went on a date which went really well and you slept together, you may be eager to call her the very next morning. This is not advisable as it will make you look super eager to go out again. It will make her worry and think that she made a bad decision with you and to not contact you anymore. A good waiting period after a good date is about two days. You should let at least a full day pass before calling her. This allows you to seem as if you are interested, without being desperate. You can always start the call off by saying you were pretty excited to call, so she gets the idea you are excited about meeting with her again.
Calling after a Terrible Date
If you went on a date where you completely failed to connect with the woman, but you feel there is still a chance, you should wait quite a bit longer to contact her. This allows some time to cool any problems you might have had with her. You should wait at least a week before even attempting to call her. If she does not answer the phone, leave a message. If she does not reply to your message, you are safe to call in another week, but if there is no response to the second message, stop calling, she is not interested.
Calling When There was a Problem on the Date
Sometimes, things may go wrong with a date. Say, you planned to go out to a park, or some place outside and it rains, this is a problem you should address. This is one of the few times you might want to call the next day. You can talk about what went wrong and discuss how you feel about it. This is your opportunity to discuss going on a date where things can go right instead. Just make sure you do not make any promises you cannot keep and try to plan a date where you will not have to worry about the weather or anything else interfering with your good time.
No matter when you call back, make sure you are respectful of her and her wishes. If she is not interested, leave her alone and move on to meeting someone else. You will find someone who wants to date you in no time.